List of Common References & Abbreviations used on WildWinds and other Numismatic Works

The lists of works have been combined into one list in alphabetical order.
  • Links to a large number of older numismatic journals from France, Belgium, Italy, Germany etc. (all free access, no countries blocked) can be found on the Medieval Coinage dot com. However, because of apparent misuse of his work (i.e. people copying all his uploads to e.g. sell them on DVDs on ebay), this part of his website has been disabled.
  • is a wonderful resource for numismatists. Search for words such as coins, coinage, Münzen, Medailles, monnaies etc to find many downloadable pdfs of numismatic works including some listed below. Note: If you are unable to download a book from because it is a book which has been arrogantly grabbed and "copyrighted" by Google, click on the "See All" link and you should see a pdf in the list.
    Google books block people with non-US proxies (IPs) from downloading many books, although there is a workaround using a VPN.
    The French National Digital Library ( has numerous old numismatic works in downloadable pdf format.
    By far the largest list of thousands of online numismatic works can be found on T. Verspag's page although most of his uploads have been copied to his lists on, which requires you to upload up to eight pdfs, in order to download one!.
    A large number of the pdfs of numismatic journals works can be found on
    General Acronyms
    NISC Not In the Standard Catalogs
    cf compare to; i.e. as the listing for that coin, but should have its own listing; for example, cf a drachm type reference for a hemidrachm of the same design.
    ff and following = as this reference and those following it.
    v or var variation from that in the reference; for example, a different legend, unlisted mintmark or officina, different reverse.
    Type FindersAnson, Leo. Three volumes listed by reverse type (with index) to help identify Greek coins. The available books of series, sadly never completed, comprises of these volumes:
    List of Greek numis. worksList of Greek numismatic works with links, at
    AMNG Die Antiken Münzen Nord-Griechenlands
    Volume I (Dacia and Moesia) as pdf at
    Volume III (Macedonia and Paeonia) as pdf at
    Babelon Ernest Babelon, Description historique et chronologique des monnaies de la République romaine , 2 volumes.
    Available on
    BMC Coins of the Roman Empire in the British Museum, 6 volumes:
    • ... Vol 1: Augustus to Vitellius (1923)
    • ... Vol 2: Vespasian to Domitian (1930
    • ... Vol 3: Nerva to Hadrian (1936) (pdf from the Indian National Library.
    • ... Vol 4: Antoninus Pius to Commodus (1940)
    • ... Vol 5: Pertinax to Elagabalus (1950)
    • ... Vol 6:Severus Alexander to Pupienus (1963)
    BMCGreek Coins in the British Museum, 27 volumes. British Museum. Most in downloadable pdf format at etc.1873-1910
    BoehringerBoehringer, Coins of Syracuse. 1929
    BopOsmund Bopearachchi, Monnaies Gréco-Bactriennes et Indo-Grecques.1991
    Calciati or CNSR. Calciati, Corpus Nummorum Siculorum (I, II, III), Milano/Mortara1983-7
    CekaCeka, H., Questions de numismatique illyrienne. State University, Tirana1972
    ChaixChaix, Eugčne: Description de onze cents monnaies impériales grecques et coloniales latines (Descriptions of 1100 Roman Provincial and Colonial coins, in French). PDF at
    ClerkMG Clerk, Catalogue of the Coins of the Achaean League
    PDF at
    Cohen Description Historique des Monnaies frappees sous L'Empire Romain, communement appelees Medailles Imperiales - 8 volumes. Online as pdfs at and viewable at the links below:
    • Vol 1: Pompey to Domitian - Online
    • Vol 2: Nerva to Antoninus Pius - Online
    • Vol 3: Marcus Aurelius to Clodius Albinus - Online
    • Vol 4: Septimius Severus to Maximinus Thrax - Online
    • Vol 5: Gordian I to Valerian II - Online
    • Vol 6: Macrianus to Diocletian & Maximianus - Online
    • Vol 7: Carausius to Constantine & sons - Online
    • Vol 8: Nepotian to Romulus Augustus, plus tesserae & cotorniates - Online
    Classical Numismatic Group
    For unlisted coins sold by CNG, I have used their auction and lot number as reference until an "official" reference is published or found.various
    Cr, Craw
    Michael Crawford, The Roman Republican Coinage, 2 volumes.1974
    CSE Arthur Houghton, Coins of the Seleucid Empire1974
    Cunetio E. Besley & R. Bland. The Cunetio Treasure. 1983
    or Goebl
    Robert Göbl, numerous works, e.g. corpus of the coinages of Valerian I, Gallienus, Saloninus, etc. .1989
    Gökyildirim IstanbulTuran Gökyildirim, Istanbul Arkeoloji Müzeleri - Lydia Sikkeleri Katalogu (Catalogue of Lydian Coins in Istanbul Archaeological Museum).2016
    GroseSee McClean, below1923
    Harl Michael Harlan, Roman Republican Moneyers and their Coins.1995
    Hendin David Hendin, Guide to Biblical Coins. 1996
    HNBarclay Head, Historia Numorum 1911
    HN Online DatabaseCarian coins 650-30 BC
    HunterG. Macdonald, Catalogue of Greek Coins in the Hunterian Collection, University of Glasgow, 3 volumes 1899
    ImhoofImhoof-Blumer, Various useful books from this prolific author including Monnaies Grčcques; Kleinasiatische Münzen; Flussgötter (River gods); Griechische Münzen and others. Most available from archive.orgvar. years
    JenkinsG.K. Jenkins, Ancient Greek Coins, Coins of Greek Sicily, Coins of Gela, Coins of Punic Sicily and others. var. years
    Köln (Koeln) A. Geissen, Katalog Alexandrinischer Kaisermünzen, Köln (Cologne), 5 volumes. 1974-1983
    Kurth D. Kurth, Demos, Ancient Coins depicting Demos, available on $152010
    Lindgren Lindgren & Frank Kovacs, Ancient Bronze Coins Of Asia Minor And The Levant From The Lindgren Collection, also Lindgren II and Lindgren III.1985
    LRBC R.A. Carson, Late Roman Bronze Coinage. 1990
    MayJ.M.F.May, Several books, incl. The Coinage of Demastion and the Lesser Coinages of the Illyro-Paeonian Region; Coinage of the Lycian League etc.1939
    McClean (aka Grose)S.W. Grose, The McClean Collection of Greek Coins (3 volumes). Available as pdfs at and other places. 1923
    Megaw M. Megaw, Diadumenian, Provincial Coinage, available on lulu.com2010
    Mesh Y. Meshorer, Ancient Jewish Coinage, 2 volumes1992
    Milne J. G. Milne, A Catalog of Alexandrian Coinage in the Ashmolean Museum.1933
    MionnetTéodore Edme Mionnet, Description de médailles antiques, grecques et romaines, avec leur degré de rarite et leur estimation 16 volumes (incl. 6 supplements and plates volumes). Online as pdfs at archive.org1830
    MIGMitchiner, Michael B. Indo-Greek And Indo-Scythian Coinage. 9 volumes. 1975-76
    Moushmov Nikola Moushmov, Ancient Coins of the Balkan Peninsula, (in Bulgarian). The Wildwinds Moushmov Section. 1912
    MuellerL. Mueller, Die Muenzen des Thracischen Koenigs Lysimachus; Coinage of Alexander III etc. Available for all on google books.1858
    NCNumismatic Chronicle, published annually by the Royal Numismatic Society. Links to older editions 1836-1899 and most later ones to 1940 are available from the Indian Central Archaeological Library . Enter "Numismatic Chronicle" into the search field. You will see 20 pages of 5 volumes per page. Note that the list is not in chronological order !.since 1836
    Normanby R. Bland & A. Burnett (Ed.). The Normanby Hoard and other Roman Coin Hoards.1988
    PegasiRomolo Calciati, Pegasi, 2 volumes 1989
    PozziJacob Hirsch, Monnaies Grecques Antiques, Collection Prof. S. Pozzi1920 (reprinted 1966)
    Price M.J.Price, The Coinage in the Name of Alexander the Great and Philipp Arridaeus. 2 volumes 1991
    RavelOscar Ravel, Les "Poulains" de Corinthe, 2 volumes1936
    Rec.Gen.Waddington, Babelon & Reinach, Recueil General des Monnaies Greques d'Asie Mineure,commencé par William Henry Waddington, Continué et Completé par Ernest Babelon et Theodore Reinach.
    Online at Virginia University also at the French National Digital Library
    Also, Volume 1, part 1 (Pontus and Paphlagonia) or
    Different Scans on
    Volume 1, part 2 (Bithynia: to Juliopolis) on
    For Volume 1, part 3 (Nicaea and Nicomedia), see or T. Verspag's page mentioned above.
    Volume 1, part 4 (Prusa, Prusias, Tius) on
    RIC Mattingly, Harold, Sydenham, et al, The Roman Imperial Coinage, 10 Volumes. Most of these are now available online as pdfs.
    • Vol 1: Augustus to Vitellius (1984)
    • Vol 2: Vespasian to Hadrian (1926; 2007)
    • Vol 3: Antoninus Pius to Commodus (1930)
    • Vol 4: [3 parts]Pertinax to Uranius Antoninus (1936)
    • Vol 5: [2 parts] Valerian to Ammandus: (1927)
    • Vol 6: Diocletian to Maximinus(1967)
    • Vol 7: Constantine and Licinius(1966)
    • Vol 8: Family of Constantine (1981)
    • Vol 9: Valentinian to Theodosius I (1951)
    • Vol 10: Divided Empire and Fall of the Western Parts
    RPC Roman Provincial Coinage
    • Vol I: Julio-Claudian Period (1992)
    • Vol II: The Flavians (1999)
    • Vol III: Nerva-Hadrian (2016)
    • Vol IV: The Antonines - Online at the Ashmolean Museum, Oxford (2006)
    • Vol VII: Gordian III and family, Asia Minor only.
    • Vol IX: Trajan Decius and family. (2016)
    • Other volumes are in preparation
    or Seaby
    H.A. Seaby, Roman Silver Coinage, 5 Volumes.
    • Vol 1: Republic to Augustus (1978)
    • Vol 2: Tiberius to Commodus (1979)
    • Vol 3: Pertinax to Balbinus and Pupienus (1982)
    • Vol 4: Gordian III to Postumus (1982)
    • Vol 5: Carausius to Romulus Augustus, (C.E.King & David Sear) (1987)
    RouvierRouvier, J. Numismatique des Villes de Phénicie (Numismatics of Phoenician Cities) originally published in Journal International d'Archéologie Numismatique Vol. 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 (1899-1903) and partially in Revue Numismatique. 4e sér. 2 (1898) and Revue Biblique Internationale 8 (1899). Please see T. Verspag's page (link above) for the appropriate links.2008
    Rutter or HN ItalyRutter, N.K., Historia Numorum Italy British Museum Press, reprinted 2001
    RuzickaLeon Ruzicka, The Coinage of Serdica (English translation) PDF at Helvetica's pdf page.. This page is password-protected to prevent Chinese theft. Please contact Dane for access information. Dane reserves the right to refuse access and for security reasons does not send the information to yahoo, hotmail, aol or bt-internet addresses..
    The Coinage of Pautalia (in German)
    or RCV
    David R. Sear, Roman Coins and Their Values.
    • 4th edition (1984)
    • 5th edition, Vol 1: Republic to the Flavians (2000)
    • 5th edition, Vol 2: Nerva to Severus Alexander (2002)
    • 5th edition, Vol 3: Maximinus I to Carinus (2005)
    • 5th edition, Vol 4: The Constantinian family (2009-2010)
    • 5th edition, Vol 5: Late Constantinians to end of Roman Imperial period (2015).
    SB David R. Sear, Byzantine Coins & Their Values.<1987>
    SG David R. Sear, Greek Coins & Their Values, 2 Volumes: Vol 1: Europe; Vol 2: Asia and Afria1978-1979
    SGI David R. Sear, Greek Imperial Coins & Their Values.1982
    SNG ANSSylloge Nummorum Graecorum American Numismatic Society
    SNG BNSylloge Nummorum Graecorum Cabinet des Médailles, Banque Nationale de Paris.various
    SNG Cop Sylloge Nummorum Graecorum, The Danish National Museum, Copenhagen
    • Vol 1: Italy - Sicily (1981)
    • Vol 2: Thrace & Macedonia (1982)
    • Vol 3: Greece: Thessaly to Aegean Islands (1982)
    • Vol 4: Bosporus to Lesbos (1982)
    • Vol 5: Ionia, Caria and Lydia (1982)
    • Vol 6: Phrygia to Cilicia (1982)
    • Vol 7: Cyprus to India (1982)
    • Vol 8: Egypt, North Africa, Spain and Gaul (1982)
    SNG FitzSylloge Nummorum Graecorum the Fitzwilliam Museum, Cambridge University
    SNG HelSylloge Nummorum Graecorum Helsinki (aka SNG Keckman)
    SNG IsSylloge Nummorum Graecorum Israel, aka Spaer
    SNG vASNG von Aulock. Originally 18 volumes, reprinted in 1987 as 4 hardbound volumes. In German.
    • Volume I: Pontus, Paphlagonia, Bithynia, Mysia, Troas, Aeolis, Lesbos, Ionia
    • Volume II: Caria, Lydia, Phrygia, Lycia, Pamphylia
    • Volume III: Pisidia, Lycaonia, Cilicia, Galatia, Cappadocia, Cyprus, Imperial Cistophoris, Postumus Lysimachus and Alexander Tetradrachms
    • Volume IV: Supplement
    Spijkerman (Spij)A. Spijkerman, The Coins of the Decapolis and Provincia Arabia.1978
    SvoronosJ.N.Svoronos. Numerous works including Ta Nomismata tou Kratous ton Ptolemaion (Ptolemaic Coinage) - Online at www.coin.com1908
    Syd E.A.Sydenham, The Coinage of the Roman Republic.1952
    Syd E.A.Sydenham, The Coinage of Caesarea in Cappadocia
    Note: This very useful book can still be purchased for $25 from Allen Berman Books
    1933, repr. 1978
    ThompsonM. Thompson, The Mints of Lysimachus, Essays in Greek Coinage presented to Stanley Robinson, Oxford 1968
    WacksMel Wacks Handbook of Biblical Numismatics Online at the ANS2001
    Weber L. Forrer, The Weber Collection of Greek Coins, 4 volumes. 1922
    Whitehead Catalogue Of Coins In The Panjab Museum Lahore Vol I. This is a great book for ID-ing Indo-Greek and Baktrian coins with all their monograms and Kharosthi scripts and letters. I don't have the Bopearachchi book so I use this.1914
    Wiczay Musei Hedervarii numos antiquos graecos et latinos descripsit (in Latin) (in Latin). This is the book referred to as Mus. Hed. in Mionnet, for example.1814
    Wruck W. Wruck, Die Syrische Provinzialpragung von Augustus bis Traian1931
    VanMeter, VM David VanMeter, A Handbook of Roman Imperial Coins. But see the Corrections 1991
    VarbanovIvan Varbanov, Bulgarian version (2002) and English version, 3 volumes Greek Imperial Coins2005
    VecchiVecchi, ItaloItalian Cast Coinage2014
    Vlasto Ravel, Oscar E, Descriptive Catalogue of the Collection of Tarentine Coins formed by M. P. Vlasto.1977
    ZieglerRuprecht Ziegler, Münzen Kilikiens aus kleinen deutschen Sammlungen and other works.1989
    OthersThere are a large number of other very useful catalogs and reference works by numerous authors, e.g. Dalaison, Hoover, Butcher, Armstrong etc. In addition, for unpublished types, I often use the sellers sale and lot number1989
    BibliographyA large bibliography at
    CorrectionsCorrigenda for some standard numismatic references
    E-Sylum and subscribe to their E-Sylum Newsletter
    ANS In March 2015 the ANS came to an agreement with Hathitrust to upload the ANS journals and most NNM and NS articles on condition that these must be made freely available to everyone. These include articles written by some of the greatest numismatists from the past 70 years - Noe, Metcalf, Thompson (including the 2 volumes of "New Style Tetradrachms"), Bellinger, Newell, Castelin etc.
    List of the 540 items.
    An xls list of numbers, titles and links to the "Numismatic Notes and Monographs" and "Numismatic Studies".. IMPORTANT: If your version of Excel shows the links as direct links, DO NOT USE THE LINK BY SIMPLY CLICKING ON IT as this can cause an error if it has split into two lines in Excel. Mark the complete link (without words such as "bundled" etc), press CTRL C (copy to memory), open your browser and press CTRL V (insert from memory) into the address line.
    VariousA member of the Forum Ancient Coins found a website with numerous useful numismatic books. Use the search terms Coins or Coinage, for example.
    Harlan J. Berk SalesA huge number of pdfs of Harlan J. Berk Mailbid Sales, with plates can be found on

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