The Ancient Coinage of Bulgarian

Listed by Moushmov Number

Including additional items for this online edition, with numbers in italics.

Medieval Bulgarian Coinage

Before the studies of the Serbian scientist L. Kovachevich appeared, the most common opinion was that the oldest Bulgarian coins are from the period of King Ivan Asen I, so all coins with monogram 36 and all with two images of king’s face were attributed to him, and those with one face and the same monogram to Ivan Asen II. However L. Kovachevich proved with certainty in the above-mentioned study that these coins are not from these kings, but from Ivan Alexander, and that no coins were known of Ivan Asen I and Ivan Asen II. These arguments were not accepted by Prof. V. Zlatarski, who describes 5 coins in his article According to the oldest Bulgarian coins (Plate LXIII 1, 4, 6 and 8 - the other can be found in Vitelov, Tarnovo), which in his opinion are from Asen II.
In the Bulgarian National Museum collection we found five more examples with images of fortified walls in addition to those described by Prof. Zlatarski. From these coins the one in Table LXIII 10 there is an "M" to the left of the king’s head, and an erased letter (X?) or a horizontal line above. The letter M with an X above (monogram 29, Table LXIX) is found on most of the silver coins of Ivan Alexander and his son Mikhail. So there is no doubt that the coin in Table LXIII 10, and also all other coins with the image of two kings' figures on the obverse and fortified walls on the reverse (Table LXIII 4-12), are wrongly attributed to be from Ivan Asen II - they must have been from King Ivan Alexander and his son Mikhail. This is also confirmed by comparing this coin to the silver coins of King Ivan Alexander and his son Mikhail on Table LXIV 8-12.
We compared the above-mentioned coin with others of this type and found two more, in comparatively good shape, on which the letter M is in the same place, and the other part is erased. (See Plate LXIII 4 and 5). The other six coins are totally worn and the edges are considerably destroyed, but keeping the above in mind, it could be suggested that all of them had had a letter M and a sign above it, which can only point to Mikhail. (All this was written when some Bulgarian AE coins were donated to the National Museum by Mr. P. K. Gabyuv from Tarnovo. Two of the coins are similar to those described above. Mr. Gabyuv tells us that an A can clearly be seen on the right, and μrho; on the left. But on the "fortified walls" coin he was unable to see M and the abbreviation μrho; beneath.)
These coins are variations of the other AE coins with two kings' images, minted for Ivan Alexander and his son Mikhail, and on which there is the monogram 42 (Table LXIX) interpreted by L. Kovachevich, because, whilst the obverse is the same, the reverse of some of them only has the monogram, whilst the reverse of our coins has the fortified walls on the reverse. Hence the legends - initials Iwa (IwaHъ AлεкCаHдъρъ) and μρ (monogram 4, Table LXIX) on the obverse, and, on the reverse, the first letter of his son’s name M ( X?) (Mихаил). On some of our coins there is a letter A beneath the letter M (Table LXII 8 and 9), perhaps denoting the name Mikhail, similar to the example with the silver coin from the same king on Table LXIV 12, where the letters M and A are ligate, in monogram form (Plate LXIX 30).
The theory about the fortified walls on the reverse of the coins discussed here, is that they were copied from Byzantine coins with images of the fortified walls of a famous fortress, such as the coins of Theodore III, Dukas (AD 1255-1259) (see No. 6891), Andronicus II Paleologus (AD 1282-1323), Manuel II Paleologus (AD 1391-1423). Though none of these Byzantine emperors was a contemporary of Ivan Alexander during the time of his co-rulership with his son Mihail (AD 1331-1355), most of them were his predecessors, and it can be supposed that they gave the idea to mint the coins with the fortified walls of the capital city, Tarnovo.
So in view of these arguments, one can accept that the AE coins with two kings' images and the letters Iwa (Table LXIII 10), and letter M on the obverse, and fortified walls on the reverse, can be attributed to Ivan Alexander and his son Mikhail. In the collection of the National Museum we found two different, additional coins of king Ivan Asen II, the reverse of one of them is exactly the same as the one from the collection of V. Avramov, published from Prof. V. Zlatarski (Table LXIII 1), and the other is the monogram type in good condition (Table LXIX 43), and on which the letters A C could denote Asen. These coins are catalogued as Nr. 7462 and Nr. 7463.
So until now the oldest Bulgarian coins were known to be from Asen II. In Travelling in Bulgaria by K. Irechek, p. 553 he maintained that when he was in Aitos, he obtained a copper coin of Terteta (AD 1280-1290), found in Aitos, and Dr. A. Todorov told A. Iliev that in 1884 he had seen a copper coin of king Ivailo (AD 1277-1279). However, we still do not know for sure whether these coins were correctly identified, because to date the coins of the following Bulgarian kings are known:
  • No1. Ivan Asen III. 1218-1241, copper.
  • No2. Mikhail II Asen. 1246-1257, silver groats.
  • No3. Todor Svetoslav 1295-1322, silver groats and copper.
  • No4. Mikhail III Shishman 1323-1330, silver and copper.
  • No5. Ivan Alexander 1331-1371, silver and copper.
  • No6. Ivan Sracimir (?)-1398, silver groats.
  • No7. Ivan Shishman 1371-1393, silver half-groats and copper.
Bulgarian gold coins are unknown. Many people consider some Byzantine coins to be Bulgarian, but they are only similar.
Beside the coins from the Bulgarian kings mentioned above, we can describe some other Bulgarian AE coins, in the National Museum, though it is not known with certainty which of the kings minted them. In the attempt to catalog ancient Bulgarian coins we tried to find and describe all the common coins correctly, which is why we present most of them in tables.
Besides the coins on Plate LXIX we also list all the monograms, symbols etc. (96 of which are known), which can be seen on Bulgarian coins. If there are monograms or signs, we are adding the catalog number of the monogram from Table LXIX.
After the Bulgarian coins we shall also catalog those of the Macedonian kings after the collapse of the Dushan kingdom in the 14th century. For this work we primarily relied on Ljubic, Opis jugoslavenskih novaca , Zagreb 1875, with few changes.

The coins with two-headed eagle.

In the collection of the National Museum among the Bulgarian coins there are six examples of AE coins with an image of a two-headed eagle, unattributed until now, in fact people even doubted that they were Bulgarian. A careful investigation and examination allow us to conclude that they are Bulgarian and were minted for King Mikhail Shishman, as we’ll see beneath. There are 14 coins with an image of a two-headed eagle in the Ruzicka collection in Bucarest, who sent us impressions, for which we are very grateful. Three of them have the letter M and μρ (monogram 4 Table LXIX), on some of the others there is μρ and traces of the letter M. The same letters can be seen on the coins from the National Museum, Plate LXIV 2 and 3 and Plate LXVII 1-7. The sign μρ (monogram 4) proves that these coins are Bulgarian, and the letter M could not mean anything else than the first letter of the king's name, in whose name these coins were minted.
Of all the Bulgarian kings who minted coins, only the names of Mikhail II Asen, Mikhail Shishman and Mikhail, the son of Ivan Alexander, who ruled with his father and who is shown on his coins, begin with the letter M, so one of those three minted these coins. The known coins of Mikhail II Asen are silver only, with Latin legends, and their workmanship, style and type are very different from those with the image of two-headed eagle, so they are not from him. We also know that they cannot be from Mikhail, son of Ivan Alexander, because he died before his father (AD 1355) and he didn’t have the right to mint coins, and certainly not with his face, as co-ruler with his father. Therefore the coins with the two-headed eagle can only be from Mikhail Shishman.
The coin which we describe with � is described also in Ljubic, Opis jugoslavenskih novaca 1875, p. 23, № 4 and Table III 10. However he wrongly supposes that it "could be from Sracimir". This coin can be seen in the Budapest National Museum. Comparing it with our coins it is of the same type and workmanship, but it is another variation and belongs to the same king (See the image on №7490). The Byzantine two-headed eagle depicted for the first time on coins, can be seen on the coins described by us, and was later used by numerous other nations, right up until the early 20th century. Byzantine coins with the image of a two-headed eagle are little known. Only one coin with this image is said to be from Emperor Manuel Comemnus (1390-1417 AD) and if it is proved to be his coin was not minted until 63 years later. Mikhail Shishman probably minted these coins for a political reason after his wife Neda, the sister of Urosha III, was exiled in 1324, and he later married Theodora, the sister of Andronicus II, and widow of king Svetoslav. The purpose of this marriage was to gain territories from Byzantium as a dowry and at the same time concluding the military alliance signed in Odrin or Dimotik, (See Past, 1911, II, p. 33).
This took place in 1327, when we suppose these coins were minted, as a result of the alliance and the relationship to the Byzantine court. For more information about this question see Bulgarian coins with two-headed eagle, Bulletin of the Bulgarian Archeological Association, 1912, volume III, p 81-97.
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Bulgarian Kings

-

IVAN ASEN II. (1218 – 1241)

- Copper.

7461 Obv:. King’s figure with crown on his head, decorated with pendant of pearls, standing facing, holding sceptre marked with dots in right hand, and long cross in left. The coin, to the right of the king’s figure is worn away and its edge is almost entirely missing, but it can still be seen (by the line of the dotted circle) that the coin was larger and that there was another person to the right of the king.
Rev.: On the middle of the coin is long vertical line, the top of which ends with the letter w; a (?) to left; μ and ρ to right; H and C above; unclear letters beneath.
(monogram 85, Table LXIX). Plate LXIII 1.
7462 Obv: In the middle of the coin is a long vertical line, w above; I (?) and a to left; traces of μρ to left. On the right side of the vertical line, next to the letter a is the letter c, and next to it – ligature of μ ρ, erased letter H(?) above, and a sign beneath end of the central line abd which is coiling around the main line, and which together maybe means ћ and л? All means IwaHъ ACћHъ μаρъ. (Monogram 84).
Rev. : Bust of Christ facing, IC – XC to left and right. Plate LXIII 2. The coin is very thin; this coin is in the National Museum and is in section of uncertain Bulgarian coins.
7463 Obv:. King’s figure with crown on the head standing facing, holding cross or cross-headed sceptre in right hand, cross on globe in left. μρ (monogram 8, Table LXIX) above his left shoulder, and monogram A and С (monogram 43) beneath his left hand – .
Rev. : Cross, which end beneath is decorated with acanthuses . Plate LXIII 3. We believe that this coin must be one of Ivan Asen II, because there is monogram that must mean AC(ћHъ). The coin is in the National Museum.
-

MIKHAIL II ASEN (1246 – 1257)

- Silver groats.

7464 Obv:. Saint standing, presenting a long-shafted standard to the king, who is standing left, bare-headed, accepting the standard with right hand and holding a sceptre or scroll in his left. MIHL-ASЄNV to right and left; I over P between the king’s head and the standard. (Mihael Asenus Imperator).
Rev. : , both hands resting on the throne, book of gospels on his lap and an X on the right of his chest. Plate LXIII 13.
7465 Obv: The same image as 7464 but with ASοRΠIV (instead of ASЄNV)-MIHοЄL; to right and left. I over P over T between the king’s head and the standard. ("imperator").
Rev. : IC-XC across fields, Christ seated facing on a throne.
-

Mikhail II Asen and Irina (1246 – 1257)

- Silver groats.

7466 Obverse. The king left, and the queen right standing facing, with high crowns, wearing splendid royal attire, holding a double-cross between them, their free hands on their chests. ч. мıаıл, - ч to right and left. CρıHа.
Rev. : IC-XC across fields, Christ seated facing on throne, both hands on the throne, book of gospels in his lap.
-

Teodor Svetoslav (1295 – 1322)

- Silver.

7467 Obv: СватCлав μρ блгаρом. The king standing facing, low crown on his head, wearing long, decorated robe, holding cross-headed sceptre in right hand, left hand on his breast.
Rev. : IC–XC. Christ seated facing on throne, right hand raised in benediction, left hand at his chest, book of gospels in his lap. Plate LXIII 14.
7468 Obv:. As 7467 with slight variations.
Rev. : As 7467. See Plate LXIII 14.
7469 Obv. The same legend as above. The king, bearded standing, with low crown on his head, holding cross-headed sceptre in right hand, and scroll in left (or at his chest).
Rev. : As above. See Plate LXIII 14.
7470 Obverse. СватCлав μρ бблгаρом. As above.
Rev: As above. See Plate LXIII 14.
7471 Obv:. Legend as above with slight variations. Image as above.
Rev. : As above. See Plate LXIII 14.
7472 Obv: Legend as above with slight variations. Image as above.
Rev: As above. See Plate LXIII 14.
-

- Copper.

7473 Obverse. ΘЄΟ. – μρ. The king with low crown on his head on horseback riding right, holding cross-headed sceptre in right hand. All within circle of dots.
Rev: Cross pattee (flared ends) within circle of dots. The coin is trachy-shaped. Plate LXIII 15.
7474 Obv. ΘΟ – μρ. As above.
Rev: As above. See Plate LXIII 15.
7475 Obv: μρ – ΘCO. The same image.
Rev: As above. See Plate LXIII 15.
7476 Obv: ΘЄO – μρ. The same image.
Rev: As above. See Plate LXIII 15.
7477 Obv: ΘO. – μρ. The same image.
Rev: As above. See Plate LXIII 15.
7478 Obv: Two kings standing, holding a cross between them.
Rev: Christ seated facing on throne. Plate LXIII 16.
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Mikhail III Shishman (1323 – 1330)

- Silver.

7470 Obv: King, wearing low crown, on horseback riding right, holding cross in right hand and the reins in his left; mx at upper left, ЦΡЬ. (monogram 13, Table LXIX) to right.
Rev: IC-XC across fields, Christ seated facing on throne, his right hand raised in benediction and holding book of gospels in left.Plate LXIII 17.
7480 Obv: The same image; above the horse MIX and μρ. (monogram 2, Table LXIX) Rev. : As above. See Plate LXIII 17.
7481 Obv: The same image; MIX at upper left, ЦΡ Б at upper right.
Rev: As above. See Plate LXIII 17.
7482 Obv: The same image; mx at upper left, and ЦΡЬ at upper right.
Rev: As above. See Plate LXIII 17.
7483 Obv: The same image; mx at upper left, and μρь at upper right.
Rev: As above. See Plate LXIII 17.
7484 Obv: The same image; MX at upper left, and ЦΡЬ. (monogram 13) at upper right.
Rev. : As above. See Plate LXIII 17.
7485 Obv: The same image; MX at upper left, and ЦΡ at upper right. (monogram 4, Table LXIX).
Rev. : As above. See Plate LXIII 17.

- Copper.

7486 Obv: The king, crowned, on horseback riding right, holding cross in right hand, and reins in left, μρ. (monogram 5, Table LXIX) beneath the cross.
Rev: Monogram of "Mikhail king". (monogram 33.) Plate LXIII 18.
7487 Obv: The same image; MX beneath the cross, and μρ (monogram 4, Table LXIX) at upper right.
Rev: Monogram 52. Plate LXIII 19.
7488 Obv: ми X аил to right of two kings standing facing, wearing royal robes, with low crowns on their heads, holding a long cross between them. .
Rev: Monogram 52, (Table LXIX.) Plate LXIII 20.
7489 Obv: The king in royal robes, low crown on his head, standing facing, holding cross in right hand, and cross on globe (or scroll?), (erased) letter M beneath the right king’s hand, and ЦΡ. (monogram 4, Table LXIX) beneath his left hand.
Rev: Two-headed eagle with wings spread. Traces of a star in upper centre. Plate LXIV 1.
7490 Obv: The king with low crown on his head standing facing, holding cross in right hand, left hand at his waist. monogram 19, (Table LXIX) beneath his right hand, and μρ. (monogram 4, Table LXIX) above his left hand.
Rev: Two-headed eagle with wings spread; six-pointed star between the eagle’s heads.
7491 Obv: The same image. M beneath his right hand, and ЦΡ. (monogram 4, Table LXIX) beneath his left hand.
Rev: Two-headed eagle with wings spread. Plate LXIV 2.
7492 Obv: The same image. Traces of M and a star beneath his right hand and ЦΡ (monogram 4, Table LXIX) beside his left shoulder.
Rev. : Two-headed eagle with wings spread; traces of a star above. Plate LXIV 3.
7493 Obv: Cross with vine-like decoration beneath, and (monogram 93, Table LXIX).
Rev: Two-headed eagle with wings spread. Plate LXIV 4.
7494 As above with monogram 93 (Table LXIX).
Rev: As above. Plate LXIV 5.
7495 As above with monogram 93.
Rev: As above. Plate LXIV 6.
7496 As above with monogram 93.
Rev: As above. Plate LXIV 7.
7497 Obv: The king, crowned, standing facing, holding cross in right hand, and uncertain object in lowered left hand ЦΡ. (monogram 4, Table LXIX) to right and left; six-pointed star beneath his right hand.
Rev: As above. Plate LXVII 4.
7498 Obv: The king, crowned, standing facing, holding cross in right hand, and cross on globe in left, six-pointed star next to his hand.
Rev: Two-headed eagle with wings spread. Above, between the eagle’s heads, traces of a symbol (probably a crown), and between the eagles' heads and wings of the eagle are three dots forming a triangle. Plate LXVII 5.
7499 Obv: The king, crowned, standing facing, holding cross in right hand, M beneath it, and a six-pointed star beneath his left hand.
Rev: Two-headed eagle with wings spread. Plate LXVII 6.
7500 Obv: As above, holding cross in right hand, left hand lowered. μρ. (monogram 4, Table LXIX) by his shoulder.
-

Ivan Alexander and his son Mikhail. (1331 – 1355)

- Silver:

7501 Obv: King Ivan Alexander and his son Mikhail standing facing with low crowns on their heads. Mikhail on the right, holding a cross and with his right hand on his chest; Alexander on the left, holding a cross and with his left hand on his chest. A long standard between them, monogram 36 (Table LXIX) above Alexander’s head, and monogram 24 beneath his right hand; μρ (monogram 4) by Mikhail’s head, and monogram beneath his left hand. Star to left and right of the base of the shaft.
Rev: IC-XC, Christ standing facing with arms open in benediction, Monogram 36 beneath his right hand and μρ. (monogram 3) beneath his left hand. Plate LXIV 8.
7502 The same coin, trachy-shaped. Plate LXIV 9.
7503 Obv: The same king’s figures in the same position. At their heads are the same monograms 46 (Table LXIX). monogram 23 beneath Alexander's right hand and monogram 29 beneath Mikhail's left hand. Star between Alexander and the shaft.
Rev: As above. Plate LXIV 10.
7504 Obv: The same king’s figures in the same position. monogram 46 (Table LXIX) at their heads, however the image is reversed, so the king’s positions are shifted with Mikhail on the left and Alexander on the right; also, for the same reason, the monograms are changed: 32 on the left and 23 on the right. Two stars below.
Rev: The same but in positive form. Plate LXIV 11.
7505 Obv: As 7501 with Alexander on the left and Mikhail on the right. monograms 46 (Table LXIX) at their heads, μρ. (monogram 4) beneath Alexander's right hand and monogram 30 beneath Mikhail's left hand. Two stars below.
Rev: As above. Plate LXIV 12. Among the many groats in the Bulgarian National Museum are the images of king Ivan Alexander and Mikail but this one, with monogram 30, is unique.
7506 Obv: The same king’s figures in the same position. At their heads are the same monograms 46 (Table LXIX). monogram 21; beneath Alexander's right hand, M beneath Mikhail's left hand.
Rev: As above. See Plate LXIV 8-12.
7506Obv: Christ standing facing with open arms.
Rev: Ivan Alexander and his son Michael Asen, AR 22mm Grolsch. 1331-1355 AD. Standard between King and Prince standing facing, M in field to right.
7507 Obv: The same king’s figures in the same position. At their heads are the same monograms 46 (Table LXIX). monogram 28 beneath Alexander's right hand, and monogram 29 beneath Mikhail's left hand.
Rev: As above. See Plate LXIV 8 – 12.
7508 Obv: The same king’s figures in the same position. At their heads are the same monograms 46 (Table LXIX). monogram 24 beneath Alexander's right hand and monogram 29 beneath Mikhail's left hand. See Plate LXIV 8 – 12.
7509 Obv: The same king’s figures in the same position. At their heads are the same monograms 46 (Table LXIX). monogram 22 beneath Alexander's right hand and M beneath Mikhail's left hand, with part of an X above.
Rev: As above. See Plate LXIV 8 – 12.
7510 Obv: The same king’s figures in the same position. At their heads are the same monograms 46 (Table LXIX). monogram 22 or 23 beneath Alexander's right hand and monogram 29 beneath Mikhail's left hand.
Rev: As above. See Plate LXIV 8 – 12.
7511 Obv: The same king’s figures in the same position. At their heads are the same monograms 46 (Table LXIX). monogram 24 beneath Alexander's right hand and monogram 29 beneath Mikhail's left hand. Two stars below.
Rev: The same; monogram 86 beneath his right hand and monogram 3 beneath his left hand. See Plate LXIV 8 – 12. At the time of writing this coin is unique (cf Lubic Opis, p. 16 and Table II 11). The incomplete form of monogram 86 on the reverse led him to believe it was monogram 27, so he attributed it to king Petr, brother of Asen I. This error was corrected by Kovachevich, who proved that this coin is one of king Ivan Alexander and his son Mikhail.
7512 Obv: The same king’s figures in the same position. Above, between the heads of king Alexander and the standard monogram 10 (Table LXIX) and beneath his right hand monogram 25; beneath Mikhail's left hand – C, and two stars beneath.
Rev: The same image of Christ; beneath his right hand – C, and beneath the left – monogram 31. (Lubic Opis, p. 3, № 1 attributed this coin to king Simeon but was again corrected by Kovachevich again, however the latter interpreted the letters as an abbreviation of СпаCъ Миρоу, whilst Prof. Zlatarski saw them as that of СыHоу Ми XаилS and judged this to be a rare coin of a rare king. It must have been minted to commemorate an important event e.g. the death of the Alexander’s son Mikhail.
7513 Obv: The same king’s figures in the same position. μρ. (monogram 3, Table LXIX) between the head of Alexander and the standard.
Rev: IC-XC, Christ standing facing, hands held wide in benediction.
7513a Small (half-) groats. Plate LXIV 13.

- Copper:

7514 Obv: Alexander and Mikhail, both crowned, standing facing, holding a standard betwen them. To the left of the king’s figures, above, can be seen traces from letter M and beneath it – A and μρ. (monogram 4, Table LXIX), and at right A and the same letters.
Rev: Fortified walls with vaulted door in the centre. Plate LXIII 4.
7515 Obv: The same image. In the fields, left from the king’s figures traces from the letters M A, and beneath μρ. (monogram 4, Table LXIX). The right part of the field is erased and μρ (monogram 4) can hardly be seen.
Rev: Fortified walls with vaulted door in the centre; in the exergue, between the door-still and the circle of dots, can be seen lines resembling N and R or H. Plate LXIII 5.
7516 Obv: The same image. The left part of the margin is erased and no letters can be seen. On the left can be seen the letters a and μρ. (monogram 4, Table LXIX).
Rev: Fortified walls with vaulted door in the centre. T in left field, P above. Plate LXIII 6.
7517 The same image. In the fields, on the left of the figures, only the upper part of μρ (monogram 4, Table LXIX). A and μρ to the right of the figures.
Rev: Fortified walls with vaulted door in the centre. Plate LXIII 7.
7518 The same image. The left edge of the coin is considerably destroyed and only the letter A and μρ (monogram 4, Table LXIX) can be seen. A and μρ (monogram 4) to the right of the figures.
Rev: Fortified walls with vaulted door in the centre. Plate LXIII 8.
7519 Obv: The same image. In the fields, at left of the figures the letter A and μρ. The field to the right of the figures is erased.
Rev: Fortified walls with vaulted door in the centre. Plate LXIII 9.
7520 Obv: The same image. In the fields, above and at left of the figures only an M can be seen because the coin is very corroded; In the fields, at right from the king’s figures an A and μρ (monogram 4).
Rev: Fortified walls with vaulted door in the centre. Plate LXIII 10.
7521 Obv: The same image. Left field destroyed, μρ (monogram 4) to right.
Rev: Fortified walls with vaulted door in the centre. The door-sill is marked off with double lines. Between the door-sill and the circle of dots are some marks resembling letters. Plate LXIII 11.
7522 Obv: The same image. A beneath the right hand of the king’s figure. The obverse is in very poor condition.
Rev: Fortified walls with vaulted door and windows above the door; beneath the door-sill is a letter resembling Π. The coin is trachy-shaped. Plate LXIII 12.
7523 Obv: Alexander and Mikhail, crowned, standing facing. Long-shafted standard between them.
Rev: Monogram 47 (Table LXIX). Plate LXIV 14.
7524 Obv: As 7523.
Rev: Monogram 47 (Table LXIX). Plate LXIV 15.
7525 Obv: As above.
Rev: Monogram 48 (Table LXIX). Plate LXIV 16.
7526 Obv: As above.
Rev: Monogram 47 (Table LXIX). Plate LXIV 15.
7527 Obv: As above.
Rev: Monogram 50 (Table LXIX). Plate LXIV 17.
7528 Obv: As above.
Rev: Monogram 46 (Table LXIX). Plate LXIV 15.
7529 Obv: As above but with μρ between Alexander's head (standing on the right on this coin), and with monogram 36 (Table LXIX) beneath his left hand.
Rev: Monogram 48. Plate LXIV 15.
-

Ivan Alexander (1355 – 1371)

- Silver.

7530 Obv: King Ivan Alexander with richly decorated mantle on shoulder and low crown with pendant of pearls at side on the head, standing facing, holding long cross in right hand with monogram 44 (Table LXIX) beneath that hand, and cross on globe in left hand with μρ (monogram 4) above his left hand and monogram 28 and M beneath his left hand.
Rev. : IC-XC, Christ seated facing on throne. Plate LXIV 18.
7531 Obv: As 7530 but with star and monogram 45 (Table LXIX); above his right hand, μρ (monogram 4) above his left hand and ΓP beneath it.
Rev: IC-XC, Christ seated facing, right hand raised in benediction. Plate LXIV 19.
7532 Obv: Ivan Alexander as above but with monogram 34 (Table LXIX) beneath his right hand, μρ (monogram 4) and star above his left hand and ΓP beneath it. (Sometimes the M and Λ are ligate) (monogram 32).
Rev: As above. Plate LXIV 20.
7533 Obv: Ivan Alexander as above. monogram 34 (Table LXIX) at his right hand; μρ (monogram 4) above his left hand and traces of Б beneath it.
Rev: As above. Plate LXV 1.
7534 Obv: Ivan Alexander as above but with monogram 38 (Table LXIX) beneath his right hand and, between the cross and the king's robe, БδЛ vertically and retrograde. To the left of the cross monogram 28 and ОМЬ and μρ (monogram 13) above his left hand.
Rev. : As above, but holding Gospels in extended left hand.
7535 Obv: Ivan Alexander as above. Cross or star at his right hand, monogram 45 (Table LXIX)above it, μρ (monogram 4) above his left hand and ΓΡ M beneath the hand.
Rev: IC-XC across fields, Christ seated facing on throne, right hand raised in benediction. See Plate LXV 1.
7536 Obv: Ivan Alexander as above. Star over monogram 45 (Table LXIX) at his right hand; another star between the cross and his robe. (monogram 4) above his left hand, ΓΡ M beneath it.
Rev: As above. See Plate LXIV 19.

- Copper.

7537 Obv: Ivan Alexander in royal vestments, crown decorated with pendants of pearls at each side, standing facing, holding short cross in right hand; monogram 36 (Table LXIX) beneath hs right hand; left hand extended; μρ (monogram 13) in upper right field.
Rev: IC-XC, Cross with a floral (acanthuses) base. Plate LXV 2.
7538 Obv: Ivan Alexander in royal vestments and with low crown, decorated with pendants of pearls at each side standing facing, holding long cross in right hand with monogram 36 (Table LXIX) beneath the hand, and holding cross on globe in left hand with μρ (monogram 4) beneath the hand.
Rev: IC-XC, Cross formed by double lines with floral (acanthuses). Monogram 96 in field. Plate LXV 3.
7539 Obv: King’s figure standing facing. Rough workmanship.
Rev: Monogram 41 (Table LXIX). Plate LXV 4.
7540 Ivan Alexander in royal vestments and crown on the head, decorated with pendants of pearls at each side, standing facing, his right hand on his breast (probably holding cross), traces of monogram 36 (Table LXIX) beneath the hand, left hand at his waist. μρ (monogram 4) at his left hand.
Rev. As above but with Monogram 94.Plate LXV 5.
-

Ivan Sracimir (? – 1396)

7541 Obv: +IW CRAЦИМИΡ ЦΡББ or ЦΡББЛ., The king with low crown on his head seated facing on throne, holding cross-headed sceptre and scroll. Lily to left and right.
Rev: + IW CRAЦИМИΡ Ц ББЛВ or БЛΓАΡ around, IC-XC across fields, Bust of Christ facing, right hand raised in benediction and holding gospels in left. Plate LXV 6.
7542Ivan Stracimir. AR Grosch. 19 mm. +IW CRAЦИМИΡ ЦΡББ or ЦΡББЛ., The king with low crown on his head seated facing on throne, holding cross-headed sceptre and scroll. Lily to left and right. / + IW CRAЦИМИΡ Ц ББЛВ or БЛΓАΡ around, IC-XC across fields, Bust of Christ facing, right hand raised in benediction and holding gospels in left.
-

Ivan Shishman (1371 – 1393)

- Silver.

7543 Obv: Ivan Shishman in royal vestments and with low crown, decorated with pendants of pearls at each side, standing facing, holding short cross in right hand, IW beneath the hand, left hand on his breast. monogram 53 and μρ (monogram 4) in fields.
Rev: M-Θ, bust of St. Bogoroditsa facing, right hand raised, holding the infant Christ with a medallion of the saint on his breast. NOTE: On Byzantine coins, M-Θ is found on coins depicting Mary. Plate LXV 7.
7544 Obv: Ivan Shishman as above.
Rev: M-Θ, bust of St. Bogoroditsa facing, both hands raised, a medallion of Christ before her. Plate LXV 8.
7545Ivan Shishman. Ivan Shishman standing facing, holding short cross. IW beneath the hand, left hand on his breast. monogram 53 and μρ (monogram 4) in fields. / M-Θ, bust of St. Bogoroditsa facing, both hands raised, a medallion of Christ before her. Plate LXV 8.

- Copper.

7546 Obv: Monogram 69 (Table LXIX).
Rev. : Lion standing left with raised tail. Plate LXV 9.
7547 Obv: Monogram 55.
Rev: As above.
7548 Obv: Monogram 56.
Rev: As above.
7549Ivan Shishman. Billon trachy. Tarnovo mint, 19.m mm, 1.12 g. Monogram 57. / Lion rampant left. Radushev-Zhekov type 1.15. 15-16; Youroukova-Penchev 131. Plate LXV 10.
7550 Obv: Monogram 58.
Rev: As above. Plate LXV 11.
7551 Obv: Monogram 14.
Rev: As above. Plate LXV 12.
7552 Obv: Erased monogram.
Rev: As above. Plate LXV 13.
7553 Obv: Monogram 59.
Rev: Monogram 13. Plate LXV 14.
7554 Obv: Monogram 60.
Rev: Monogram 15. Plate LXV 15.
7555 Obv: Monogram 62.
Rev: Monogram 16.
7556 Obv: Monogram 63.
Rev: Monogram 13. Plate LXV 16.
7557 Obv: Monogram 64.
Rev: Monogram 13. Plate LXV 17.
7558 Obv: Monogram 65.
Rev: Monogram 12. Plate LXV 18.
7559 Obv: Monogram 54.
Rev: Erased.
7560 Obv: Monogram 59.
Rev: Erased. Plate LXV 19.
7561 Obv: Monogram 68.
Rev: Monogram 16.
7562 Obv: Monogram 71.
Rev: Monogram 17. Plate LXVI 12.
7563 Obv: Monogram 65.
Rev: Monogram 16. Plate LXVI 11.
7564 Obv: Monogram 63.
Rev: Monogram 18. Plate LXVI 1.
7565 Obv: Monogram 81.
Rev: Cross. Monogram 92. Plate LXVI 2.
7566 Obv: Monogram 69.
Rev: Cross. Monogram 91. Plate LXVI 3.
7567 Obv: Monogram 70.
Rev: Cross. Monogram 90. Plate LXVI 4.
7568 Obv: Monogram 67.
Rev: Cross. Monogram 91. Plate LXVI 5.
7569 Obv: Monogram 76.
Rev: Letter E and cross.
Monogram 89. Plate LXVI 6.
7570 Obv: Monogram 58.
Rev: Cross. Monogram 90. Plate LXV 20.
7571 Obv: Monogram 67.
Rev: Cross. Monogram 90. Plate LXVI 7.
7572 Obv: Monogram 74.
Rev: Cross. Monogram 92.
7573 Obv: Monogram 58.
Rev: Cross. Monogram 92. Plate LXVI 8.
7574 Obv: Monogram 74.
Rev: Cross. Monogram 92. Plate LXVI 9.
7575 Obv: Monogram 75.
Rev: Cross. Monogram 92. Plate LXV 21.
7576 Obv: Monogram 76.
Rev: Cross.
7577 Obv: Monogram 59.
Rev: Turkish legend, from which can be seen only the word "Zarabi", ("mint"). The actual mint name is missing, because that part is erased. Plate LXVI 10. This coin was found in Tarnovo. G. Balaschev believes that this coin must have been minted after Ivan Shishman had became vassal to his son-in-law sultan Murada. (Past I, p 93.).
-

Uncertain Copper Coins.

7578 Obv: King’s figure with crown on the head standing, holding cross in right hand.
Rev: Bust of Christ holding book of Gospel. Plate LXVI 13.
7579 Obv: King’s figure standing facing, holding cross in right hand, ⊢ at his left hand, Є at his right hand.
7580 Obv: King’s bearded bust, holding cross with floral decoration in right hand (Ivan Alexander?).
Monogram 94. Plate LXVI 14.
7581 Obv: King’s bust opposite, holding a standard or lily in right hand, and a cross in left. A letter resembling letter M beneath the standard and μρ (monogram 4) above it. Cross and uncertain letter above the king’s head.
Rev: Bust of saint facing. Plate LXVI 15.
7582 Obv: King’s bust opposite, holding cross in right hand.
Rev: Cross with floral decoration, 4 dots in each quarter. (Ivan Alexander? monogram 93). Plate LXVI 17.
7583 Obv: The same king’s bust.
Rev: IC-XC, Cross with floral decoration. (Ivan Alexander? Monogram 94). Plate LXVI 17.
7584 Obv: King’s figure standing facing, holding cross on globe in left hand, right hand at his waist. In the right field, letters resembling ал μρ (monogram 4) above.
Rev: Bust of a saint facing. The coin is trachy-shaped. Plate LXVI 16. Probably a coin of Ivan Alexander.
7585 Obv: Monogram 78.
Rev: Monogram 79.
7586 Obv: Monogram 82.
Rev: Monogram 13.
7587 Obv: The monogram is erased.
Rev: Monogram 12. (Ivan Shishman?).
7588 Obv: Monogram 80.
Rev: Monogram 13. Plate LXVI 16.
-

Macedonian kings from the Dushan kingdom after its collapse in the 14th century.

-

King Valkashin (1366 – 1371) Boyar from Dushan’s court, Valkashin was ruler of the Prilep province. However, after the Dushan’s death in 1366 Valkashin proclaimed himself sovereign of north-west Macedonia until being killed in 1371.

7589 Obv: XC-IC, Christ standing facing, right hand raised in benediction, left hand lowered; five stars vertically to left and right.
Rev: ка-лъ влккашH. in three lines across fields, King Valkashin on the left, in royal vestments and open crown, standing facing, holding sceptre in left hand and next to him. Queen Helena standing facing on the right, with closed crown decorated with pendants of pearls, holding cross in right hand. Long cross of Salem (three crossbars) between them. Plate LXVIII 1.
7590 Obv: IC-+C, Christ seated facing on square-backed throne, trefoil of dots to right.
Rev: в Б ха Б а Блго въρHии кρа влъ каши legend in five lines.
7591 Obv: The same.
Rev: + въ ха Ба Б а (instead of Б л) го вђ (inverted) ρHии кρаль в кашиHъ legend in five lines. Plate LXVIII 2.
7592 Obv: CνCт CлCνат (Cвет Cаваот Cвет) around, IC–XC across fields, Christ standing facing, right hand raised in benediction, left hand lowered.
Rev: Б лго вђρHи кρа Блг каши, legend in four lines. Plate LXVIII 4.
7593 Obv: Christ standing facing with both hands at his breast. Four stars stars placed vertically in left and right field.
Rev: вь хьа Ба Б лаговђρHии кρалђ кльш, legend in five lines. Plate LXVIII 3.
7594 Obv: The king, crowned, on horseback riding right, holding patriarchal cross in right hand and reins in left. кρ ль across upper fields, six-pointed star of dots beneath the horse.
Rev: кρалич a ЄлђHа around a circle, interrupted by a woman's head facing above and a helmet at the bottom, within the circle is a rectangular base surmounted by a shield (?) decorated with a star of eight rays. Plate LXVIII 5.
-

Krali-Marko (1371 – 1394) Krali Marko and his father Valkashin ruled together in western Macedonia, and after his father died he pronounced himself king with Prilep as his capital city.

7595 Obv: IC–XC, Christ seated facing on throne.
Rev. : вь ха - Ба Б лов ђρиH кρ aль ма ρко, legend in five lines. Plate LXVIII 6.
7596 Obv: IC-XC, Christ standing facing, right hand raised in benediction. Four stars placed vertically in left and right field.
Rev: вь ха - Б а Блгов ђρиH кρ aль ма ρко, legend in five lines.. Plate LXVIII 7.
7597 Obverse as no. 7596.
Rev: + Б лаго вρђиss акρа м, legend in three lines. Plate LXVIII 9.
-

Despot Ioan Oliver (mid-XIV century)

Oliver was a magnate and and one of Stephen Dushan's chief vassals of mixed Serbian, Bulgarian and Byzantine parentage. He pronounced himself king over a vast domain centered on the region of Zletovo, and minted coins using the monogram of the Bulgarian kings, (monogram 18), imitating Bulgarian coins.
7599 Obv: Oliver, bare-headed, seated facing on throne, holding cross in right hand; Cфь – μρь across fields.
Rev: + MONIT Λ D ЄSPOT OLI around a circle interrupted at the top by a bare-headed bust facing with a sceptre of dots against his left shoulder, and a large helmet right at the bottom. In the centre is a rectangle with concave edges with three dots at each corner. Plate LXVIII 10.
7600 Obv: Image as above but with sщь – μρь across fields.
Rev: The same legend around as on 7599 and a similar image, but with a cross on the helmet. Plate LXVIII 11.
7601 Obv:IC–XC across fields, Christ seated facing on throne, I and D on the throne.
Rev: MONIT A D ЄSPOTI OLI around a circle containing a two-headed eagle with wings spread. Plate LXVIII 12.
-

Konstantin (? – 1394)

Konstantin was king of northern Macedonia with his capital at Velbuzd (Konstendil).
7602 Obv: IC-XC across upper fields, Christ seated facing on throne.
Rev: Б топC Є дх БиHдьтCок (retrograde) around Konstantin standing facing in royal vestments and with high crown; a bare-headed saint at his side standing facing, holding a long patriarchal cross between them. Plate LXVIII 13.
7603 Obv: IC-XC across upper fields, Christ seated facing on throne, right hand raised in benediction and holding book of gospels.
Rev: к тди п (Konstantin Despot) resembling IΓ-TωN-Π; in three lines with a lily in each corner. Plate LXVIII 14.
7604 Obv: S. STЄFA nu . – SCUTARI, Saint standing facing, holding a book and with right hand raised.
Rev: D COST-Aп-TINUS, Konstantin in royal vestments, and high crown seated facing, holding lis-topped sceptre and cross on globe. Plate LXVIII 15.
7605aAnother Konstantin coin is known but with an Arabic legend, minted by him when he was vassal of sultan Murada in 1383. On the reverse is a partially legible legend from which we learn that it was minted in Kyustendil. Plate XVIII 16.
-

Jupan Andreia Gropa (XIV century)

We learn from a legend in the church old St. Kliment in Ohrid, that Jupan ruled the region of Ohrid.
7605 Obv: Christ standing facing, holding book of gospels abd raising right hand in benediction, footstool at his feet. Retrograde "S" pattern down the left and right fields.
Rev: по ма ти Б жи – жsпаH – гρопа – I….I, legend in five lines. Plate LXVIII 18.
-

Kniaz Dimitr (XIV century)

Kniaz Dimitr was the third son of Valkashin and he probably ruled part of his father’s lands, because there is one well-known coin struck in his name.
7606 Obv: Christ seated facing on throne, book of gospels in his lap, flower to left and right.
Rev: .:+ Б л:. – аговђ – ρHи ρ I - :. Iє дρк, legend in four lines. Plate LXVIII 17.


See also: Ancient Bulgarian Coins Sold at the Forum Ancient Coins
Ancient Bulgarian Coins for sale at the Forum Ancient Coins

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