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The Ancient Coinage of Bulgarian

Listed by Moushmov Number

Including additional items for this online edition, with numbers in italics.

Medieval Bulgarian Coinage

Before the studies of the Serbian scientist L. Kovachevich appeared, the most common opinion was that the oldest Bulgarian coins are from the period of King Ivan Asen I, so all coins with monogram 36 and all with two images of king’s face were attributed to him, and those with one face and the same monogram to Ivan Asen II. However L. Kovachevich proved with certainty in the above-mentioned study that these coins are not from these kings, but from Ivan Alexander, and that no coins were known of Ivan Asen I and Ivan Asen II. These arguments were not accepted from Prof. V. Zlatarski, who describes 5 coins in his article According to the oldest Bulgarian coins (Plate LXIII 1, 4, 6 and 8 - the other can be found in Vitelov, Tarnovo), which in his opinion are from Asen II.
In the Bulgarian National Museum collection we found five more examples with images of fortified walls apart in addition to those described by Prof. Zlatarski. From these coins the one in Table LXIII 10 next to the king’s head on the left there is M and above it an erased sign (X?) or a horizontal line. The letter M with X above (monogram 29, Table LXIX) is found on most of the silver coins of Ivan Alexander and his son Mikhail. So there is no doubt that the coin in Table LXIII 10, and also all other coins with the image of two kings' figures on the obverse and fortified walls on the reverse (Table LXIII 4-12), are wrongly attributed to be from Ivan Asen II - they must have been from King Ivan Alexander and his son Mikhail. This is also confirmed by comparing this coin to the silver coins of King Ivan Alexander and his son Mikhail on Table LXIV 8-12.
We compared the above-mentioned coin with the others of this type and found two other ones, in comparatively good shape, on which the same letter M is in the same place, and the other part is erased. (See Plate LXIII 4 and 5). The other six coins are totally effaced and the edges are considerably destroyed, but keeping the above in mind, it could be suggested that all of them had had a letter M and a sign above it, which can only point to Mikhail. (All this matter was written when some Bulgarian AE coins were donated to the National Museum by Mr. P. K. Gabyuv from Tarnovo. Two of the coins are similar to those described above. Mr. Gabyuv tells us that an A can clearly be seen on the right, and m цр on the left A. But on the "fortified walls" coin he was unable to see M and the abbreviation цр below.)
These coins are variations of the other AE coins with two king’s images, minted for Ivan Alexander and his son Mikhail, and on which there is the monogram 42 (Table LXIX) interpreted by L. Kovachevich, because, whilst the obverse is the same, the reverse of some of them only has the monogram, whilst the reverse of our coins has the fortified walls on the reverse. Hence the legends - initials Iwa (Iwaнъ Aлεксандъръ) and the abbreviation цр (monogram 4, Table LXIX) on the obverse, and, on the reverse, the first letter of his son’s name M ( X?) (Mихаил). On some of our coins there is a letter A beneath the letter M (Table LXII 8 and 9), perhaps denoting the name Mikhail, similar to the example with the silver coin from the same king on Table LXIV 12, where the letters M and A are ligate, in monogram form (Plate LXIX 30).
The theory about the fortified walls on the reverse of the coins discussed here, must have been copied from Byzantine coins with images of the fortified walls of a famous fortress, like the coins of Theodore III, Dukas 1255-1259 year (see №6891), Andronicus II Paleologus 1282-1323 year, Manuel II Paleologus (1391-1423). Though none of these Byzantine emperors was a contemporary of Ivan Alexander during the time of his co-rulership with his son Mihail (1331-1355), most of them were his predecessors, and it can be supposed that they gave the idea to mint the coins with the fortified walls of the capital city, Tarnovo.
So in view of these arguments, one can accept that the AE coins with two kings' images and the letters Iwa (Table LXIII 10), and letter M on the obverse, and - on the reverse - fortified walls, can be attributed to Ivan Alexander and his son Mikhail. In the collection of the National Museum we found two different, additional coins of king Ivan Asen II, the reverse of one of them is exactly the same as the one from the collection of V. Avramov, published from Prof. V. Zlatarski (Table LXIII 1), and the other is the monogram type in good condition (Table LXIX 43), and where the letters A C could mean Asen. These coins are catalogued as Nr. 7462 and Nr. 7463.
So until now the oldest Bulgarian coins were known to be from Asen II. In Travelling in Bulgaria by K. Irechek, p. 553 he maintained that when he was in Aitos, he obtained a copper coin of Terteta (1280-1290 AD), found in Aitos, and Dr. A. Todorov told A. Iliev that in 1884 he had seen a copper coin of king Ivailo (1277-1279 AD). However, we still do not know for sure whether these coins were correctly identified, because to date the coins of the following Bulgarian kings are known:
  • No1. Ivan Asen III. 1218-1241, copper.
  • No2. Mikhail II Asen. 1246-1257, silver groats.
  • No3. Todor Svetoslav 1295-1322, silver groats and copper.
  • No4. Mikhail III Shishman 1323-1330, silver and copper.
  • No5. Ivan Alexander 1331-1371, silver and copper.
  • No6. Ivan Sracimir (?)-1398, silver groats.
  • No7. Ivan Shishman 1371-1393, silver half-groats and copper.
Bulgarian gold coins are unknown. Many people consider some Byzantine coins to be Bulgarian, but they are only similar.
Beside the coins from the Bulgarian kings mentioned above, we can describe some other Bulgarian AE coins, in the National Museum, though it is not known with certainty which of the kings minted them. In the attempt to catalog ancient Bulgarian coins we tried to find and describe all the common coins correctly, which is why we present most of them in tables.
Besides the coins on Plate LXIX we also list all the monograms, symbols etc. (96 of which are known), which can be seen on Bulgarian coins. If there are monograms or signs, we are adding the catalog number of the monogram from Table LXIX.
After the Bulgarian coins we shall also catalog those of the Macedonian kings after the collapse of the Dushan kingdom in the 14th century. For this work we primarily relied on Ljubic, Opis jugoslavenskih novaca, Zagreb 1875, with few changes.

The coins with two-headed eagle.

In the collection of the National Museum among the Bulgarian coins there are six examples of AE coins with an image of a two-headed eagle, undefined until now, people even doubted that they were Bulgarian. A careful investigation and examination allow us to conclud that they are Bulgarian and were minted for King Mikhail Shishman, as we’ll see below. There are 14 coins with an image of a two-headed eagle in the collection of Mr. Ruzicka from Bucharest, who sent us impressions, for which we are very grateful. Three of them have the letter M and the abbreviation цр (monogram 4 Table LXIX), on some of the others there is the abbreviation цр and traces of the letter M. The same letters can be seen on the coins from the National Museum, Plate LXIV 2 and 3 and Plate LXVII 1-7. The sign цр (monogram 4) proves that these coins are Bulgarian, and the letter M could not mean anything else than the first letter of the king's name, in whose name these coins were minted.
Of all the Bulgarian kings who minted coins, only the names of Mikhail II Asen, Mikhail Shishman and Mikhail, the son of Ivan Alexander, who ruled with his father and who is shown on his coins, begin with the letter M, so one of those three minted these coins. The known coins of Mikhail II Asen are silver only with Latin legends and their workmanship and type are very different from those with the image of two-headed eagle, so they are not from him. We also know that they cannot be from Mikhail, son of Ivan Alexander, because he died before his father (1355 AD) and he didn’t have the right to mint coins, and certainly not with his face, as co-ruler with his father. Therefore the coins with the two-headed eagle can only be from Mikhail Shishman.
The coin which we describe with � is described also in Ljubic, Opis jugoslavenskih novaca 1875, p. 23, № 4 and Table III 10. However he wrongly supposes that it "could be from Sracimir". This coin can be seen in the Budapest National Museum. Comparing it with our coins it is of the same type and workmanship, but it is another variation and belongs to the same king (See the image on №7490). The Byzantine two-headed eagle depicted for the first time on coins, can be seen on the coins described by us, and was later used by numerous other nations, right up until the early 20th century. Byzantine coins with the image of a two-headed eagle are little known. Only one coin with this image is said to be from Emperor Manuel Comemnus (1390-1417 AD) and if it is proved to be his coin was not minted until 63 years later. Mikhail Shishman probably minted these coins for a political reason after his wife Neda, the sister of Urosha III, was exiled in 1324, and he later married Theodora, the sister of Andronicus II, and widow of king Svetoslav. The purpose of this marriage was to gain territories from Byzantium as a dowry and at the same time concluding the military alliance signed in Odrin or Dimotik, (See Past, 1911, II, p. 33).
This took place in 1327, when we suppose these coins were minted, as a result of the alliance and the relationship to the Byzantine court. For more information about this question see Bulgarian coins with two-headed eagle, Bulletin of the Bulgarian Archeological Association, 1912, volume III, p 81-97.
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Bulgarian Kings

-

IVAN ASEN II. (1218 – 1241)

- Copper.

7461 Obv:. King’s figure with crown on his head, decorated with pendant of pearls, standing facing, holding sceptre marked with dots in right hand, and long cross in left. The coin, to the right of the king’s figure is worn away and its edge is almost entirely missing, but it can still be seen (by the line of the dotted circle) that the coin was larger and that there was another person to the right of the king. Rev.: On the middle of the coin is long vertical line, the top of which ends with the letter w; a (?) to left; ц and р to right; н and с above; unclear letters below.
(monogram 85, Table LXIX). Plate LXIII 1.
7462 Obverse. In the middle of the coin is long vertical line, w above; I (?) and a to left; traces of цр to left. On the right side of the vertical line, next to the letter a is set the letter c, and next to it – ligature of ц р, over the ligature erased letter н(?), and at beneath end of the middle line – a sign, which is coiling around the main line, and which together maybe means ћ and л? All means Iwaнъ Aсћнъ царъ. (Monogram 84). Rev. : Bust of Christ opposite, and above the signs Iс – χ с . Plate LXIII 2. The coin is very thin; this coin is in the National Museum and is in section of indefinite Bulgarian coins.
7463 Obverse. King’s figure with crown on the head standing opposite, holding in right hand cross or sceptre with cross, and in the left – globe with cross above (country). Over the left king’s shoulder – the abbreviation цр (monogram 8, Table LXIX), and under his left hand – monogram A and С (monogram 43). Rev. : Cross, which end below is decorated with acanthuses . Plate LXIII 3. This coin we think that belong to Ivan Asen II, because there is monogram that must mean Aс(ћнъ). The coin is in the National Museum. Mikhail II Asen (1246 – 1257 year) Silver groats.
7464 Obverse. Saint standing, with right hand giving standard with long staff to the king, who is standing bare-headed, left, taking with right hand the standard, and in the left hand holding sceptre or scroll. At right side legend: MIHL, and at left ASЄNV; between the king’s head and the standard – the letters I and P, one over another. (Mihael Asenus Imperator). __ ___ Rev. : Christ seated on a throne opposite, with the abbreviations IC – XC; with his both hands resting on the throne, and in his lap – Gospel; on his right breast – the sign χ. Plate LXIII 13.
7465 Obverse. The same image like the one above. At right side legend ASοRΠIV (instead of ASЄNV), and at left: MIHοЄL; between the king’s head and the standard – the letters I, P and T, one over another. ( imperaтor). __ ___ Rev. : Christ seated on a throne opposite with the abbreviations IC – XC.
-

Mikhail II Asen and Irina (1246 – 1257)

- Silver groats.

7466 Obverse. The king left, and the queen right standing opposite, with high, cogged crowns, wearing in splendid kings clothes, holding together double-cross and their free hands are on their breasts. At right legend: ч. мıаıл, and at left ч. срıна. __ __ Rev. : Christ seated on a throne opposite with the abbreviations Ic – Xc. His both hands are on the throne, and in his lap – Gospel.
-

Teodor Svetoslav (1295 – 1322)

- Silver.

7467 Obverse. Сватслав цр блгаром. The king standing with short crown on his head, wearing in long, decorated dress, holding in right hand sceptre and cross, and the left hand is on his breast. __ __ Rev. : Ic – Xc. Christ seated on a throne blessing with his right hand, and the left hand in on his breasts; in his lap – Gospel. Plate LXIII 14.
7468 Obverse. The same legend with little changes. The same image. Rev. : The same. See Plate LXIII 14.
7469 Obverse. The same legend. The king bearded standing, with short crown on his head, holding in right hand sceptre with cross, and in the left – scroll or is on his breasts. Rev. : The same. See Plate LXIII 14.
7470 Obverse. Сватслав цр бблгаром. The same image. Rev. : The same. See Plate LXIII 14.
7471 Obverse. The same legend with little changes. The same image. Rev. : The same. See Plate LXIII 14.
7472 Obverse. The same legend with little changes. The same image. Rev. : The same. See Plate LXIII 14.
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- Copper.

7473 Obverse. ΘЄΟ. – цр. The king with short crown on his head on horse advancing right, in right hand holding sceptre with cross. All within grain circle. Rev. : Cross made from 4 triangles within grain circle. The coin is korubesta. Plate LXIII 15.
7474 Obverse. ΘΟ – цр. The same image. Rev. : The same. See Plate LXIII 15.
7475 Obverse: цр – ΘCO. The same image. Rev. : The same. See Plate LXIII 15.
7476 Obverse: ΘЄO – цр. The same image. Rev. : The same. See Plate LXIII 15.
7477 Obverse: ΘO. – цр. The same image. Rev. : The same. See Plate LXIII 15.
7478 Obverse: Tow king’s figures standing, holding cross together. Christ seated on a throne. Plate LXIII 16.
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Mikhail III Shishman (1323 – 1330)

- Silver.

7470 Obverse: King with short crown on his head on horse advancing right, holding __ in right hand cross and in the left – the bridles of the horse; above the horse, at left, mx, and at right – the abbreviations ЦРЬ. (monogram 13, Table LXIX). Rev. : Christ wearing long dress seated on a throne, blessing with right hand, holding in __ __ left hand Gospel. Next to his head the signs Ic – Xc. Plate LXIII 17.
7480 Obverse: The same image; above the horse MIX and the abbreviation цр. (monogram 2, Table LXIX) Rev. : The same. See Plate LXIII 17.
7481 Obverse: The same image; above, at left MIX, at right ЦР Б. Rev. : The same. See Plate LXIII 17.
7482 Obverse: The same image; above, at left mx, and at right ЦРЬ. Rev. : The same. See Plate LXIII 17.
7483 Obverse: The same image; above the horse, at left mx, and at right црь. Rev. : The same. See Plate LXIII 17.
7484 Obverse: The same image; above, at left MX, and at right ЦРЬ. (monogram 13.) Rev. : The same. See Plate LXIII 17.
7485 Obverse: The same image; above, at left MX, and at right the abbreviation ЦР. (monogram 4, Table LXIX) Rev. : The same. See Plate LXIII 17.

- Copper.

7486 Obverse: The king with crown on his head on horse advancing right, holding in right hand cross, and in the left – the bridles of the horse; in the margin, below the cross the abbreviation цр. (monogram 5, Table LXIX). Rev. : Monogram, which means Mikhail king. (monogram 33.) Plate LXIII 18.
7487 Obverse: The same image; below the cross MX, and at right to the king’s head – the abbreviation цр. (monogram 4, Table LXIX). Rev. : Monogram 52. Plate LXIII 19.
7488 Obverse: Two king’s figures wearing king’s clothes, with short crowns on their heads standing opposite, holding together high cross. In the margin, at right: ми χ аил . Rev. : Monogram 52, (Table LXIX.) Plate LXIII 20.
7489 Obverse: The king in king’s clothes, with short crown on his head standing opposite, holding in right hand cross, and in the left – globe with cross or scroll? In the margin, below the right king’s hand – erased letter M, and below the left hand – the abbreviation ЦР. (monogram 4, Table LXIX). Rev. : Two-headed eagle with wings spread. Above, in the margin, between the eagle’s heads – track of star? Plate LXIV 1.
7490 Obverse: The king with short crown on his head standing opposite, holding in right hand cross and in the left is on his waist. In the margin, below the right hand of the king monogram 19, (Table LXIX) and above his left hand probably the abbreviation цр. (monogram 4, Table LXIX). Rev. : Two-headed eagle with wings spread; at left, between the eagle’s heads – six-pointed star.
7491 Obverse: The same image. Below the right hand of the king – the letter M, below the left hand – the abbreviation ЦР. (monogram 4, Table LXIX). Rev. : Two-headed eagle with wings spread. Plate LXIV 2.
7492 Obverse: The same image. Below the right hand of the king – tracks from the letter M and star, in the margin, next to his left shoulder – the abbreviation ЦР. (monogram 4, Table LXIX) Rev. : Two-headed eagle with wings spread; above can be seen tracks from star. Plate LXIV 3.
7493 Obverse: Cross, which end below is decorated with aqantile leafs. (monogram 93, Table LXIX). Rev. : Two-headed eagle with wings spread. Plate LXIV 4.
7494 The same front part (monogram 93, Table LXIX). Rev. : The same image. Plate LXIV 5.
7495 The same front part (monogram 93). Rev. : The same image. Plate LXIV 6.
7496 The same front part (monogram 93). Rev. : The same image. Plate LXIV 7.
7497 Obverse: The king with crown on his head standing opposite, holding in right hand cross, and with the left hand down holding some object; at each side of the king’s shoulders – the abbreviation ЦР. (monogram 4, Table LXIX); in the margin, below the right hand of the king – six-pointed star. Rev. : The same. Plate LXVII 4.
7498 Obverse: The king with crown on his head standing opposite, holding in right hand cross, and in the left – globe with cross on it (country); next to the left shoulder – six-pointed star. Rev. : Two-headed eagle with wings spread. Above, between the eagle’s heads can be seen some sign, probably crown, and between the heads and the wings of the eagle – three points in triangles. Plate LXVII 5.
7499 Obverse: The king with crown on his head standing opposite, holding in right hand cross and below it – letter M. Below the left hand of the king – six-pointed star. Rev. : Two-headed eagle with wings spread. Plate LXVII 6.
7500 Obverse: The same king’s figure, holding in right hand cross, and the left hand is down. Next to the left king’s shoulder – the abbreviation цр. (monogram 4, Table LXIX).
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Ivan Alexander and his son Mikhail. (1331 – 1355)

- Silver:

7501 Obverse: King Ivan Alexander and his son Mikhail standing opposite with short crowns on their heads. Mikhail standing at right side with the right hand on the breasts, holding in left hand cross; at left king Alexander with left hand on his breasts, holding in right hand cross. Between them – standard with long staff; above at the Alexander’s head monogram 36 (Table LXIX), and below his right hand monogram 24; at the Mikhail’s head the abbreviation цр. (monogram 4), below his left hand monogram 29. At their feet, at each side of the staff – star. Rev. : Christ standing opposite with opened arms aside, blessing; at his head IC – XC, below his right hand monogram 36 and below the left hand – the abbreviation цр. (monogram 3). Plate LXIV 8.
7502 The same coin, korubesta. Plate LXIV 9.
7503 Obverse: The same king’s figures in the same position. At their heads are the same monograms 46 (Table LXIX). Below the right hand of king Alexander monogram 23 and below the left hand of Mikhail monogram 29. Below, between Alexander and the staff – star. Rev. : The same. Plate LXIV 10.
7504 Obverse: The same king’s figures in the same position. At their heads are the same monograms 46 (Table LXIX). The seal on the front part of this coin is in negative form and that’s why the king’s figures are with shifted places – Mikhail at left and king Alexander – at right; by the same reason and the monograms are changed: 32 at left and 23 is at right. Two stars below. Rev. : The same in positive form. Plate LXIV 11.
7505 Obverse: The same king’s figures – king Alexander at left and Mikhail at right. At their heads the same monograms 46 (Table LXIX). Below the right hand of king Alexander the abbreviation цр. (monogram 4), below the left hand of Mikhail monogram 30. Two stars below. Rev. : The same. Plate LXIV 12. Among the lot of the groats in the Bulgarian National Museum are the images of king Ivan Alexander and Mikail and this one is unique with monogram 30.
7506 Obverse: The same king’s figures in the same position. At their heads are the same monograms 46 (Table LXIX). Below the right hand of king Alexander monogram 21; M below the left hand of Mikhail. Rev. : The same. See Plate LXIV 8-12.
7506Christ standing facing with open arms / Ivan Alexander & his son Michael Asen AR 22mm Grolsch. 1331-1355 AD. Standard between King and Prince standing facing, M in field to right.
7507 Obverse: The same king’s figures in the same position. At their heads are the same monograms 46 (Table LXIX). Below the right hand of king Alexander monogram 28 and below the left hand of Mikhail monogram 29. Rev. : The same. See Plate LXIV 8 – 12.
7508 Obverse: The same king’s figures in the same position. At their heads are the same monograms 46 (Table LXIX). Below the right hand of king Alexander monogram 24 and below the left hand of Mikhail monogram 29. See Plate LXIV 8 – 12.
7509 Obverse: The same king’s figures in the same position. At their heads are the same monograms 46 (Table LXIX). Below the right hand of king Alexander monogram 22 and below the left hand of Mikhail – letter M and above one line from the letter X. Rev. : The same. See Plate LXIV 8 – 12.
7510 Obverse: The same king’s figures in the same position. At their heads are the same monograms 46 (Table LXIX). Below the right hand of king Alexander monogram 22 or 23 and below the left hand of Mikhail monogram 29. Rev. : The same. See Plate LXIV 8 – 12.
7511 Obverse: The same king’s figures in the same position. At their heads are the same monograms 46 (Table LXIX). Below the right hand of king Alexander monogram 24 and below the left hand of Mikhail monogram 29. Two stars below. Rev. : The same; below the right hand of Christ monogram 86 and below the left hand monogram 3. See Plate LXIV 8 – 12. For the present this coin is unique and Lubic Opis, p. 16 and Table II 11, because of unfinished form of the monogram 86 on the reverse, which he accept for monogram 27, he ascribe to king Petr, brother of Asen I. However this mistake is emended by Kovachevich, who proved that this coin is of king Ivan Alexander and his son Mikhail too.
7412 Obverse: The same king’s figures in the same position. Above, between the heads of king Alexander and the standard monogram 10 (Table LXIX) and below his right hand monogram 25; below the left hand of Mikhail – C, and two stars below. Rev. : The same image of Christ; below his right hand – C, and below the left – monogram 31. Lubic Opis, p. 3, № 1 ascribe this coin to king Simeon. However this mistake is emended by Kovachevich again, but he read the letters conversely for abbreviation of Спасъ Мироу, and Prof. Zlatarski for Сыноу Ми χаилS and thinks that that king of coins can be seen seldom. So they must had been minted in honour of some important event - the death of the Alexander’s son Mikhail, and for his memory.
7513 Obverse: The same king’s figures in the same position. Between the head of Alexander and the standard – the abbreviation цр. (monogram 3, Table LXIX). Rev. : Christ and the signs IC – XC, standing opposite with hands opened aside, blessing.
7513a Little – half- groats. Plate LXIV 13.

- Copper:

7514 Obverse: King Alexander and his son Mikhail with crowns on their heads standing opposite and holding standard together. In the margin, on the left to the king’s figures, above, can be seen tracks from letter M and beneath it – A and the abbreviation цр. (monogram 4, Table LXIX), and at right A and the same abbreviation. Rev. : Fortified walls with vault door in the middle. Plate LXIII 4.
7515 Obverse: The same image. In the margin, left from the king’s figures tracks from the letters M A, and below the abbreviation цр. (monogram 4, Table LXIX). The right part of the margin is erased and hardly can be seen the abbreviation цр. (monogram 4). Rev. : Fortified walls with vault door in the middle; in the exergue, between the door-still and the grain circle, can be seen lines looking like N and R or H. Plate LXIII 5.
7516 Obverse: The same image. The left part of the margin is erased and cannot be Iw seen any letters. At the left part can be seen the letters a and the abbreviation цр. (monogram 4, Table LXIX). Rev. : Fortified walls with vault door in the middle. In the margin at left the letter T and on the right of this letter and above – P. Plate LXIII 6.
7517 The same image. In the margin, on the left of the figures, is in good shape only the upper part of the abbreviation цр (monogram 4, Table LXIX). In the margin, on the right of the figures is the letter A and the abbreviation цр. Rev. : Fortified walls with vault door in the middle. Plate LXIII 7.
7518 The same image. The edge of the coin, at left of the king’s figures is considerably destroyed and only the letter A can be hardly seen, and the abbreviation цр (monogram 4, Table LXIX). In the margin, at the right of the figures can be seen the letter A and the abbreviation цр (monogram 4). Rev. : Fortified walls with vault door in the middle. Plate LXIII 8.
7519 Obverse: The same image. In the margin, at left of the figures can be seen only the letter A and the abbreviation цр. The margin, at right of the figures is erased. Rev. : Fortified walls with vault door in the middle. Plate LXIII 9.
7520 Obverse: The same image. In the margin, above and at left from the king’s figures can be seen the letter M and below cannot be seen anything, because the coin is greatly rusty; in the margin, at right from the king’s figures hardly can be seen the letter A, but clearly can be seen the abbreviation цр (monogram 4). Rev. : Fortified walls with vault door in the middle. Plate LXIII 10.
7521 Obverse: The same image. At left side the margin is destroyed through next to the figure. At right in the margin hardly can be seen the abbreviation цр (monogram 4). Rev. : Fortified walls with vault door in the middle. The door-still is marked off with double lines. Between the door-still and the grain circle can be seen some cuts looking like letters. Plate LXIII 11.
7522 Obverse: The same image. Below the right hand of the king’s figure, at right can be seen letter A. The front part is not in good shape. Rev. : Fortified walls with vault door and windows above the door; below the door – door-still and sign, which looks like letter Π. The coin is korubesta. Plate LXIII 12.
7523 Obverse: King Alexander and his son Mikhail with crowns on their heads standing opposite. Between them – standard with long staff. Rev. : Monogram 47 (Table LXIX). Plate LXIV 14.
7524 Obverse: The same king’s figures. Rev. : Monogram 47 (Table LXIX). Plate LXIV 15.
7525 Obverse: The same king’s figures. Rev. : Monogram 48 (Table LXIX). Plate LXIV 16.
7526 Obverse: The same king’s figures. Rev. : Monogram 47 (Table LXIX). Plate LXIV 15.
7527 Obverse: The same king’s figures. Rev. : Monogram 50 (Table LXIX). Plate LXIV 17.
7528 Obverse: The same king’s figures. Rev. : Monogram 46 (Table LXIX). Plate LXIV 15.
7529 Obverse: The same king’s figures. Between the head of king Alexander, who is at right on this coin, and the standard is the abbreviation цр., and below his left hand monogram 36 (Table LXIX). Rev. : Monogram 48. Plate LXIV 15.
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Ivan Alexander (1355 – 1371)

- Silver.

7530 Obverse: King Ivan Alexander with richly decorated mantle on shoulder and short crown with pendant of pearls at side on the head, standing opposite, holding in right hand high cross and below the hand – monogram 44 (Table LXIX); in the left hand holding globe with cross on it (country); above his left hand the abbreviation цр (monogram 4), and below monogram 28 and M. __ ___ Rev. : Christ and the signs IC – XC, seated on a throne opposite. Plate LXIV 18.
7531 Obverse: The same image of king Alexander. Above, at his right hand star and below monogram 45 (Table LXIX); above his left hand the abbreviation цр (monogram 4), and below ΓP. Rev. : Christ and the signs IC – XC, seated on a throne opposite, blessing with right hand. Plate LXIV 19.
7532 Obverse: The same image of king Alexander; below his right hand monogram 34 (Table LXIX), above his left hand the abbreviation цр (monogram 4) and next to the monogram – star, and below ΓP. Sometimes the letter M is ligature with Λ (monogram 32). Rev. : The same. Plate LXIV 20.
7533 Obverse: The same image of king Alexander. At his right hand monogram 34 (Table LXIX); above his left hand the abbreviation цр (monogram 4) and below tracks from Б. Rev. : The same. Plate LXV 1.
7534 Obverse: The same image of king Alexander. Below the right hand of the king hardly can be seen monogram 38 (Table LXIX) and below, between the cross and the dress of the king vertically are set in order and in negative form the letters БδЛ, and on the left of the cross monogram 28 and ОМЬ; above the left hand of the king the abbreviation цр (monogram 13). Rev. : The same, but Christ blessing with right hand and in left hand holding Gospel and is extended.
7535 Obverse: The same image of king Ivan Alexander. Above, at the right hand of the king – cross (or star?) and below this hand monogram 45 (Table LXIX); above his left hand the abbreviation цр (monogram 4) and below the hand ГР M. Rev. : Christ and the signs IC – XC, seated on a throne opposite, blessing with right hand. See Plate LXV 1.
7536 Obverse: The same image of king Ivan Alexander. At the right king’s hand – star and below the star monogram 45 (Table LXIX); between the cross and his dress another star. Above the left king’s hand the abbreviation цр (monogram 4) and below the hand ГР M. Rev. : The same. See Plate LXIV 19.

- Copper.

7537 Obverse: King Ivan Alexander in king’s clothes, with crown decorated with pendants of pearls at each side, standing opposite, holding in right hand short cross; below the right hand monogram 36 (Table LXIX); his left hand is extended; above the left hand, next to the king’s head, the abbreviation цр (monogram 13). Rev. : Cross decorated below with acanthuses and above the signs IC – XC (monogram 94). Plate LXV 2.
7538 Obverse: King Alexander in king’s clothes and with short crown, decorated with pendants of pearls at each side standing opposite, holding in right hand long cross and below the hand can be seen monogram 36 (Table LXIX), and in left hand holding globe with cross on it (country); below his left hand the abbreviation цр (monogram 4). Rev. : Cross with double lines and below the signs IC – XC; the cross is decorated below with acanthuses, which can be seen hardly. Monogram 96. Plate LXV 3.
7539 Obverse: King’s figure standing opposite. Rough workmanship. Rev. : Monogram 41 (Table LXIX). Plate LXV 4.
7540 Obverse: King Alexander in king’s clothes and crown on the head, decorated with pendants of pearls at each side, standing opposite, his right hand is on his breasts (probably holding cross) and below the hand tracks from monogram 36 (Table LXIX), and the left hand is on his waist. In the margin, at his left hand the abbreviation цр (monogram 4). Rev.
(monogram 94). Plate LXV 5.
-

Ivan Sracimir (? – 1396)

7541 Obverse: The king with short crown on his head seated on a throne opposite, at each side of the throne – lily; the king is holding in right hand sceptre with cross on its top, and in the left – scroll; legend around: +IW CRAЦИМИР ЦРББ or ЦРББЛ. Rev. : Christ’s bust opposite, blessing with right hand and holding in left hand Gospel; above, at his head the abbreviations IC – XC. Around, in grain circle: + IW CRAЦИМИР Ц ББЛВ or БЛГАР. Plate LXV 6.
7542 The same coin half-groat.
-

Ivan Shishman (1371 – 1393)

- Silver.

7543 Obverse: King Ivan Shishman in king’s clothes and with short crown, decorated with pendants of pearls at each side, standing opposite, holding in right hand short cross and below the hand IW, and the left hand is on his breasts. There is at his left hand, in the margin monogram 53 and the abbreviation цр (monogram 4). Rev. : Bust of St. Bogoroditsa and signs at the sides – M – Θ, holding in hands the youth Christ with medallion of saint on his breasts. The Bogoroditsa is with right raised hand. Plate LXV 7.
7544 Obverse: The same image of king Ivan Shishman with the same signs. Rev. : Bust of St. Bogoroditsa opposite with raised hands and the signs at sides M – Θ. There is medallion of Christ on her breasts. Plate LXV 8.
7545 Obverse: The same image of king Ivan Shishman; at his right hand ш, and at the left hand the abbreviation цр (monogram 6) Rev. : The same. See Plate LXV 8.

- Copper.

7546 Obverse: Monogram 69 (Table LXIX) Rev. : Lion standing left with raised tail. Plate LXV 9.
7547 Obverse: Monogram 55. Rev. : The same.
7548 Obverse: Monogram 56. Rev. : The same.
7549 Obverse: Monogram 57. Rev. : The same. Plate LXV 10.
7550 Obverse: Monogram 58. Rev. : The same. Plate LXV 11.
7551 Obverse: Monogram 14. Rev. : The same. Plate LXV 12.
7552 Obverse: Erased monogram. Rev. : The same. Plate LXV 13.
7553 Obverse: Monogram 59. Rev. : Monogram 13. Plate LXV 14.
7554 Obverse: Monogram 60. Rev. : Monogram 15. Plate LXV 15.
7555 Obverse: Monogram 62. Rev. : Monogram 16.
7556 Obverse: Monogram 63. Rev. : Monogram 13. Plate LXV 16.
7557 Obverse: Monogram 64. Rev. : Monogram 13. Plate LXV 17.
7558 Obverse: Monogram 65. Rev. : Monogram 12. Plate LXV 18.
7559 Obverse: Monogram 54. Rev. : Erased.
7560 Obverse: Monogram 59. Rev. : Erased. Plate LXV 19.
7561 Obverse: Monogram 68. Rev. : Monogram 16.
7562 Obverse: Monogram 71. Rev. : Monogram 17. Plate LXVI 12.
7563 Obverse: Monogram 65. Rev. : Monogram 16. Plate LXVI 11.
7564 Obverse: Monogram 63. Rev. : Monogram 18. Plate LXVI 1.
7565 Obverse: Monogram 81. Rev. : Cross. Monogram 92. Plate LXVI 2.
7566 Obverse: Monogram 69. Rev. : Cross. Monogram 91. Plate LXVI 3.
7567 Obverse: Monogram 70. Rev. : Cross. Monogram 90. Plate LXVI 4.
7568 Obverse: Monogram 67. Rev. : Cross. Monogram 91. Plate LXVI 5.
7569 Obverse: Monogram 76. Rev. : Letter E and cross.
Monogram 89. Plate LXVI 6.
7570 Obverse: Monogram 58. Rev. : Cross. Monogram 90. Plate LXV 20.
7571 Obverse: Monogram 67. Rev. : Cross. Monogram 90. Plate LXVI 7.
7572 Obverse: Monogram 74. Rev. : Cross. Monogram 92.
7573 Obverse: Monogram 58. Rev. : Cross. Monogram 92. Plate LXVI 8.
7574 Obverse: Monogram 74. Rev. : Cross. Monogram 92. Plate LXVI 9.
7575 Obverse: Monogram 75. Rev. : Cross. Monogram 92. Plate LXV 21.
7576 Obverse: Monogram 76. Rev. : Cross.
7577 Obverse: Monogram 59. Rev. : Turkish legend, from which can be seen only a word (Zarabi), which means mint. The most important part of the legend – the part that indicates the place where the coin is minted (the city) is missing, because that part is erased. Plate LXVI 10. This coin was found in Tarnovo. To Mr. G. Balaschev thinking this coin must be is minted after king Ivan Shishman had became vassal of his son-in-law sultan Murada. (Past I, p 93.).
-

Indefinite Copper Coins.

7578 Obverse: King’s figure with crown on the head standing, holding in right hand cross. Rev. : Bust or Christ holding Gospel. Plate LXVI 13.
7579 Obverse: King’s figure standing opposite, holding in right hand cross. In the margin, at his left hand ⊢ and at the right Є.
7580 Obverse: King’s bearded bust, holding in right hand cross, decorated with acanthuses (Ivan Alexander?).
Monogram 94. Plate LXVI 14.
7581 Obverse: King’s bust opposite, holding in right hand standard or lily, and in the left – cross. Below from the standard – letter looking like letter M and above the abbreviation цр (monogram 4). Above the king’s head – cross and some sign. Rev. : Bust of saint. Plate LXVI 15.
7582 Obverse: King’s bust opposite, holding in right hand cross. Rev. : Cross decorated below with acanthuses and there are 4 points in each of the sections above. (Ivan Alexander? monogram 93). Plate LXVI 17.
7583 Obverse: The same king’s bust. Rev. : Cross decorated below with acanthuses and above the signs Ic – Xc. (Ivan Alexander? Monogram 94). Plate LXVI 17.
7584 Obverse: King’s figure standing opposite with right hand on the waist; in left hand quasi holding globe with cross on it (country). In the margin, at the right hand can be hardly seen horizontally letters looking like ал and above can be seen the abbreviation цр (monogram 4). Rev. : Bust of a saint opposite. The coin is korubesta. Plate LXVI 16. Probably this coin is from king Ivan Alexander.
7585 Obverse: Monogram 78. Rev. : Monogram 79.
7586 Obverse: Monogram 82. Rev. : Monogram 13.
7587 Obverse: The monogram is erased. Rev. : Monogram 12. (Ivan Shishman?).
7588 Obverse: Monogram 80. Rev. : Monogram 13. Plate LXVI 16.
-

Macedonian kings from the Dushan kingdom after its crumbling in XIV century.

-

King Valkashin (1366 – 1371) Boyar from Dushan’s court, Valkashin was ruler of province Prilep. However, after the Dushan’s death in 1366 Valkashin proclaimed himself for sovereign of north-west Macdonia until being killed in 1371.

7589 Obverse: Christ standing, the signs IC – XC, with right raised hand blessing and the left hand down; five stars vertically to left and right. Rev. : King Valkashin in king’s clothes with opened crown on his head standing opposite, holding in left hand sceptre and next to him, at his right side is standing queen Helena, his wife, with closed crown decorated with pendants of pearls, holding in right hand cross. Between them – long, triple cross. There is legend in the empty margin, at both sides of the king’s figures: ка-лъ влккашн. Plate LXVIII 1.
7590 Obverse: Christ seated on a throne opposite and the signs IC - +C. Rev. : Following legend in five lines: в Б ха Б а Блго върнии кра влъ каши.
7591 Obverse: The same. Rev. : Legend: + въ ха Ба Б а (instead of Б л) го вђ (inverted) рнии краль в кашинъ. Plate LXVIII 2.
King Valkashin. 1366 - 1371 AD. Silver Grosh. christ enthroned. / Inscription. Moushmov 7591.
7592 Obverse: Christ standing, the signs IC – XC, with right raised hand blessing and the left hand is down. Around the legend: сνст слсνат (свет саваот свет). Rev. : Legend in 4 lines: Б лго вђрни кра Блг каши. Plate LXVIII 4.
7593 Obverse: Christ standing opposite with both hands on his breasts. At sides – 4 stars set in vertically order. Rev. : Legend in five lines: вь хьа Ба Б лаговђрнии кралђ кльш. Plate LXVIII 3.
7594 Obverse: The king with crown on his head, on horse advancing right, holding in right hand double cross, and in the left – the bridles of the horse. Above, at the king’s shoulders the abbreviation кр ль and below the horse – six-pointed star. Rev. : Circle crossed by helmet and above the helmet – square base; above the base – big eight-pointed star, and woman’s head above. Around the circle – legend; кралич a Єлђна. All in grain circle. Plate LXVIII 5.
-
Krali-Marko (1371 – 1394) Krali marko and his father Valkashin ruled together in west Macedonia, and after his father died he pronounce himself for independent king with capital Prilep.
7595 Obverse: Christ seated on a throne opposite and the signs IC – XC. __ __ Rev. : Legend in 5 lines вь ха - Ба Б лов ђрин кр aль ма рко. Plate LXVIII 6.
7596 Obverse: Christ standing opposite and the signs IC – XC, blessing with right hand. At sides – 4 stars set in order, vertically. Rev. : Legend in 5 lines: вь ха - Б а Блгов ђрин кр aль ма рко. Plate LXVIII 7.
7597 The same front part. Rev. : Legend in 3 lines: + Б лаго врђиss акра м. Plate LXVIII 9.
-

Despot Ioan Oliver (middle of XIV century)

Oliver was from family of Deianovtsi, which are kin of the Macedonian leader Jarko. He occupied some positions in Dushan and at last oppressive position. His possession was close to Onche-pole and Lesnovo. After Dushan died he pronounce himself for independent king of ruled from him lands and minted coins with the sign of the Bulgarian kings, (monogram18), probably imitating Bulgarian coins or Dushan’s ones.
7599 Obverse: Despot Oliver bare-headed seated on a thront opposite, holding in right hand cross; at each side of the throne the abbreviation сфь – црь. Rev. : Helmet right and square base, with 3 pint on each end, above, over the base – bare-headed bust with sceptre from points at his left shoulder. Legend around: monit Λ D ЄSPOT OLI. Plate LXVIII 10.
7600 Obverse: The same image. At each side of the throne sщь – црь. Rev. : The same legend around and the same image, but there is on the helmet on this coin . Plate LXVIII 11.
7601 Obverse: Christ seated on a throne opposite and the signs IC – XC; at the throne the letters I and D. Rev. : Legend around; monit A D ЄSPOTI OLI. Within is imaged two-headed eagle with wings spread. Plate LXVIII 12.
-

Konstantin (? – 1394)

Konstantin was king of north Macedonia with capital Velbuzd (Konstendil). He minted coins like despot and Turkish vassal.
7602 Obverse: Christ seated on a throne opposite and the signs IC – XC. Rev. : Despot Konstantin in king’s clothes and with high crown on his head standing opposite; at his left side is standing bare-headed saint and holding together double high cross; around the coin legend that must be red inverted: Б топс Є дх Биндьтсок. Plate LXVIII 13.
7603 Obverse: Christ seated on a throne, blessing with right hand, and the signs IC – XC. Rev. : In the middle of the coin are set in order in 3 lines, cross-shaped, the following letters: к тди п (Konstantin Despot). Plate LXVIII 14.
7604 Obverse: Saint standing opposite, with right hand censing, and in left hand holding book. Around legend: S. STЄFA nu . – SCUTARI. Rev. : Konstantin in king’s clothes, with high crown on his head seated opposite, holding in right hand sceptre, which top is decorated with flower, and in the left – globe with cross on it (country). Around the coin is legend: D COST-Aп-TINUS. Plate LXVIII 15. Known is and another coin from Konstantin, but with Turkish legend, minted by him when he was vassal of sultan Murada in 1383.
785 г”, and on the other side of the coin are illegible words. We learn from the legible words that this coin is minted in Kiustendil. Plate XVIII 16.
-

Jupan Andreia Gropa (XIV century)

We learn from a legend in the church old St. Kliment in Ohrid, that Jupan ruled the region of Ohrid.
7605 Obverse: Christ standing opposite, blessing with right hand and in left hand holding a book. Short chair at his feet. In the margin at left and at right are set vertically 3 or 44 S. Rev. : Legend in 5 lines: по ма ти Б жи – жsпан – гропа – I….I. Plate LXVIII 18.
-

Kniaz Dimitr (XIV century)

Kniaz Dimitr was third son of Valkashin and probably he ruled independent some part of his father’s lands, because there is famous coin from him.
7606 Obverse: Christ seated on a throne opposite; in his lap – book. In the margin, at each side of the throne – flower. Rev. : Legend in 4 lines: .:+ Б л:. – аговђ – рни р I - :. Iє дрк. Plate LXVIII 17.

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